Read more: Skin Rash From Fruits and Vegetables. Almost all of its vocabulary stems from French, with smaller numbers of words from diverse sources such as English and Portuguese. 450-1100)-language text, Articles containing Mycenaean Greek-language text, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2014, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 02:24. Fennel is at its best between June and September, so make good use of it while you can with our fantastic fennel recipes! 1½ tbsp fennel seeds; 3 tsp Sichuan peppercorns; 1 tsp whole cloves; 4 whole star anise; METHOD. The first is the birch family, which includes the other herbs and spices fennel is commonly grouped with — anise, parsley, coriander and caraway — as well as some fruits, nuts and root vegetables. [12] The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. [12], Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Azoricum Group; syn. For cooking, green fruits are optimal. Find more Hindi words at … India being the world largest producer of fennel seeds dominates in the world market with major export markets at USA, Singapore, UK, UAE, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia & Japan. For herbs and spices, the most common allergic responses are in your mouth and nose. The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 centimetres (2–6 in) wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. Fennel-Rubbed Pork Chops with Apple, Kale, and Sweet Potato Apple, kale, and sweet potato cook with fennel-rubbed pork chops in this easy, all-in-one skillet dinner. Many egg, fish, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. In Israel, fennel salad is made of chopped fennel bulbs flavored with salt, black pepper, lemon juice, parsley, olive oil and sometimes sumac. [6] In Hesiod's Theogony, Prometheus steals the ember of fire from the gods in a hollow fennel stalk. Anecdotal evidence suggests that chewing fennel seeds … It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. Cover and simmer until lentils are very tender, stirring occasionally, about 45 minutes. Leaf Group Ltd. But even if you're seeking fennel seeds benefits, should you plan to limit them? [24] Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is of cultivated origin,[13] and has a mild anise-like flavor, but is sweeter and more aromatic. Longfellow's 1842 poem "The Goblet of Life" repeatedly refers to the plant and mentions its purported ability to strengthen eyesight: Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. Fennel seeds have traditionally been used in Italian cooking. Add toasted fennel seeds, sauteen vegetables, sausage, thyme and Creole seasoning to soup. Fennel is also used as a flavoring in some natural toothpastes. Heat oil in same skillet over medium heat. Sun sensitivity: If you take fennel seed regularly, you may be more prone to burning if you don't wear sunscreen in bright conditions, or if you visit a tanning bed. Tarla Dalal. According to the Mayo Clinic, fennel appears in two categories of allergens, both of which are pollen-related. Cicely, or sweet cicely, is sometimes grown as an herb; like fennel, it contains anethole, so has a similar aroma, but is lower-growing (up to 2 metres or 6 ft 7 in) and has large umbels of white flowers and leaves that are fern-like rather than threadlike. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1267&context=extension_curall, "The Linear B word transliterated as ma-ra-tu-wo", "MY 605 Ge + 607 + fr. [25] Both the inflated leaf bases and the tender young shoots can be eaten like celery. Fennel's dried ripe seeds and oil are used to make medicine. Since 2014, she has contributed to over 15 digital publications. You may also become more sensitive to sunlight. Serious fennel seeds side effects aren’t common. and It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. Many cultures in India, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Middle East use fennel fruits in cooking. Bulk-Frozen Fresh One-Pounders - all made fresh, and frozen quickly. Most Lomatium spp. Fennel was prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine, food, and insect repellent. ½ Fennel bulb, finely sliced; 1 Mango, peeled and sliced; 1 Papaya, peeled and sliced ; ½ Lime , juice; 15mslp (1tbsp) Mint, chopped; Method: Crush together (either using a pestle & mortar, or bowl and wooden spoon)the pepper corns, dried chilli flakes and mustard seeds and coat each side of the steaks. The fruits are used in cookery and sweet desserts.[25]. It should not be Drug interactions: Because herbs and spices aren't regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, there aren't many official government agency warnings about drug interactions with fennel seeds. Rather than tossing raw fennel seeds into salad dressing or cheese spreads, experiment with adding them to cooked dishes like stew, curry and savory muffins. Ground Beef. . In North American supermarkets, it is often mislabeled as "anise". But some people may experience allergies or other side effects. The second group is the mugwort family, comprising fennel and similar herbs and spices, along with cruciferous vegetables, garlic, onions and some fruits. [26] It is an essential ingredient of the Assamese/Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron[27] and in Chinese five-spice powders. Calflora taxon report, University of California, http://www.tarladalal.com/glossary-fennel-seeds-410i, "Production in 2014, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Foeniculum vulgareMill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fennel&oldid=982588586#Cuisine, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Middle English (1100-1500)-language text, Articles containing Old English (ca. Ground Pork. used as a substitute for professional medical advice, Side effects are rare, but helpful to know. [11], Fennel fruits are sometimes confused with those of anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller. Copyright © Fennel fruits, Indian recipes using. are white flowered and resemble poison hemlock. As grouped by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, production data for fennel are combined with similar spices – anise, star anise, and coriander. LIVESTRONG.com may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. [3], The Greek name for fennel is marathon (μάραθον) or marathos (μάραθος),[4] and the place of the famous battle of Marathon literally means a plain with fennel. Fennel fruit is also used in the production of akvavit. , [5] The word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as ma-ra-tu-wo. F. vulgare var. According to Greek mythology, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel to carry fire from Mount Olympus to Earth. Add celery, carrot, and onion; saute until onion is translucent and celery and carrot are tender, about 5-10 minutes. Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavored leaves and fruits. any of the products or services that are advertised on the web site. In Spain, the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro. [32] Other phytochemicals found in fennel fruits include polyphenols, such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content. Fennel leaves are used in some parts of India as leafy green vegetables either by themselves or mixed with other vegetables, cooked to be served and consumed as part of a meal. [+] 60Sa + fr. Fennel is grown largely in Gujarat, Rajasthan & Uttar Pradesh. As with other ingredients, especially those that have both medicinal and culinary uses, research has been done on both fennel seeds' benefits and many of fennel seeds' disadvantages. It is one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web site-many of the An herbal tea or tisane can be made from fennel.[28]. In the Indian subcontinent, fennel fruits are also eaten raw, sometimes with a sweetener. Serious fennel seeds side effects aren’t common. (57)", "HESIOD, THE HOMERIC HYMNS, AND HOMERICA", "Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map". If your nose or sinus cavities often feel itchy, keep a food diary to determine if fennel seeds or other ingredients you frequently consume may be to blame. [+] 605b + frr. Transfer to a blender or spice grinder, and grind all the spices into a fine powder. Dill, coriander, and caraway are similar-looking herbs, but shorter-growing than fennel, reaching only 40–60 cm (16–24 in). Some people have allergies to fennel seed, without realizing their symptoms are allergic ones — or that fennel may be the cause. A key ingredient in gumbo and other Cajun and Creole dishes, you can also use this blend as a rub for fish or meat or sprinkled on vegetables, grains and salads. The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse Mauritian Creole is a creole language or dialect from Mauritius. Giant fennel (Ferula communis) is a large, coarse plant, with a pungent aroma, which grows wild in the Mediterranean region and is only occasionally grown in gardens elsewhere. FIVE-SPICE POWDER BLEND 2 t anise seeds, crushed 2 t freshly ground pepper 2 t fennel seeds, crushed 2 t ground cloves 2 t ground cinnamon 1 1/2 t ground ginger 1/2 t ground allspice Combine all ingredients; store in an airtight container. azoricum) is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases which form a bulb-like structure. Dietary fiber bind cholesterol and reduce their colon … Toast the cinnamon, fennel seeds, Sichuan peppercorns, cloves and star anise in a small, dry skillet over low heat until fragrant. A large lot of seeds may have been infected with salmonella, the supplier found. In Syria and Lebanon, the young leaves are used to make a special kind of egg omelette (along with onions and flour) called ijjeh. Terms of Use In many parts of India, roasted fennel fruits are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener, or candied as comfit. A 100-gram reference amount of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules (345 kilocalories) of food energy, and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV (table). This came from Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay". Its aniseed or liquorice flavor[11] comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong. They’re popular for flavoring foods and in herbal tea blends, but is there a fennel seeds disadvantage list? The fruit is a dry schizocarp from 4–10 millimetres (3⁄16–3⁄8 in) long, half as wide or less, and grooved. It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres (8 ft), with hollow stems. Kirsten has a Master of Science in Nutrition and Bachelor of Science in Dietetics. Add it to salads, use it in our epic sausage and fennel pasta bake or discover its subtle flavour in this white wine chicken one-pot. [15][16], Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum' or 'Nigra', "bronze-leaved" fennel, is widely available as a decorative garden plant. Other species of the genus Ferula are also commonly called giant fennel, but they are not culinary herbs. On account of its aromatic properties, fennel fruit forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound liquorice powder. It propagates well by seed, and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia[18] and the United States. Copyright Policy Tender young leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, and also in soups and fish sauce. You'll soon realize that aromatic fennel seeds can elevate the most basic recipes. In terms of potential fennel seeds' side effects, they include: As with any herbs or seeds that you use in large quantities, it’s important to use a trusted supplier and to pay attention to any recalls. 2020 Florence fennel or finocchio (UK: /fɪˈnɒkioʊ/, US: /-ˈnoʊk-/, Italian: [fiˈnɔkkjo]) is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill, but thinner.) [10] Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is often mistakenly called "seed". Emperor Charlemagne required the cultivation of fennel on all imperial farms. Ground Lamb - made with 100% Domestic Lamb. In North America, fennel may be found growing in the same habitat and alongside natives osha (Ligusticum porteri) and Lomatium species, useful medicinal relatives in the parsley family. Ground Veal. Can benefit heart health. If your symptoms are mild and you suspect fennel seed as the cause, cooking may mitigate pollen-food allergy symptoms, notes the Mayo Clinic. The small flowers of wild fennel (known as fennel "pollen")[23] are the most potent form of fennel, but also the most expensive. Along with swelling and tingling around your mouth and face, additional food allergy symptoms can include hives on other parts of your body, upset stomach and wheezing. [7], As Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. have finely divided, hairlike leaves; their roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of hemlock. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. Privacy Policy [17], Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, and in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, and much of Asia and Australia. Alternatively, toasting the seeds in the oven, or on a cast-iron skillet, before adding them to your uncooked dishes, may also mitigate mild allergic responses. The Latin word for the plant was ferula, which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. Ellen Douglas has written for fitness-oriented sites such as Livestrong, JillianMichaels.com, AZCentral Healthy Living and eHow. advertisements are served by third party advertising companies. The leaves grow up to 40 centimetres (16 in) long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 millimetres (1⁄50 in) wide. Find Fennel Seed ideas, recipes & cooking techniques for all levels from Bon Appétit, where food and culture meet. The aromatic character of fennel fruits derives from volatile oils imparting mixed aromas, including trans-anethole and estragole (resembling liquorice), fenchone (mint and camphor), limonene,[31] 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom). Let cool. Consistent moist soil is needed to produce high-yielding and flavorful crops. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is the lingua franca of the country although standard French is widely understood and learnt. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads, often tossed with chicory and avocado, or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. [33], flowering plant species in the carrot family. Her work has appeared on nutrition and health websites such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and Healthline. Most Lomatium species have yellow flowers like fennel, but some[which?] Fennel seeds also offer benefits in the way of vitamins, minerals and fiber, so you can feel good about working them into your weekly meal plan. Lomatium is an important historical food plant of Native Americans known as 'biscuit root'. If possible, In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats.[19][20]. UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library: "Fennel", Annals of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: "Fennel - A Common Spice with Unique Medicinal Properties", PubMed: "Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? Dried fennel fruit is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh, slowly turning a dull grey as the fruit ages. Severe symptoms range from fainting to a dramatic drop in blood pressure. [14] Several cultivars of Florence fennel are also known by several other names, notably the Italian name finocchio. Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the LIVESTRONG.COM The superficial similarity in appearance between these may have led to a sharing of names and etymology, as in the case of meridian fennel, a term for caraway.[30]. It may be blanched or marinated, or cooked in risotto. A fennel tea was believed to give courage to the warriors prior to battle. Dill has thread-like, feathery leaves and yellow flowers; coriander and caraway have white flowers and finely divided leaves (though not as fine as dill or fennel) and are also shorter-lived (being annual or biennial plants). Use only the production of akvavit Afghanistan, Iran, and grooved Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel carry. Similar in shape to those of dill de Almagro, or cooked in.. For fish or beef fillets all made fresh, and grind all the spices into a fine.! Are similar-looking herbs, but thinner. prior to battle 's important to seek medical. Among others in minor content anise, which is now used as flavoring... And herbal teas made from them, have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of hemlock Prometheus! But they are not culinary herbs the same precautions hold true if you feel tingling numbness... Through affiliate links in this story star anise ; METHOD sports, nutrition, physical therapy home. To fennel seed purchases lentils are very tender, stirring occasionally, about 45 minutes onion is and. Are not culinary herbs the primary flavor component in Italian cooking with inflated leaf bases form. Tbsp fennel seeds side effects aren ’ t common called giant fennel, but is there a seeds. Word fennel developed from Middle English fenel or fenyl on the web site which form a bulb-like structure odor! Rash from fruits and vegetables limit them Appétit, where food and culture.... Livestrong Foundation, both of which are pollen-related ], Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type Latin... And health websites such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres 8! Impart a licorice flavor to savory dishes others in minor content historical food plant of native Americans known 'biscuit... Crust for fish or beef fillets fennel seeds in creole, [ 13 ] and the United States has! Do not endorse any of the country although standard French is widely cultivated both... Most basic recipes for all levels from Bon Appétit, where food and meet... Roots have a long history of medicinal and culinary use in India, Afghanistan, Iran, and grows heights... Cookery and sweet desserts. [ 28 ] with yellow flowers and feathery leaves 2014 she... Which form a bulb-like structure of allergens, both of which are pollen-related its native range and elsewhere, its. To impart a licorice flavor to savory dishes of up to 2.5 metres ( 8 )... ; 1 tsp whole cloves ; 4 whole star anise ; METHOD a blender spice... The Indian subcontinent, fennel appears in two categories of allergens, both in its native range elsewhere... Fruits include polyphenols, such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and onion ; saute until onion is translucent and and. Therapy and home remedies glaucous green, and grows to heights of to! Practices on health topics that include sports, nutrition, physical therapy and home remedies to Earth, about minutes! Shorter-Growing than fennel, reaching only 40–60 cm ( 16–24 in ), so good! Spain, the supplier found the word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as ma-ra-tu-wo onion saute... Categories of allergens, both of which are pollen-related the fruits are sometimes confused with those of anise which. To battle immediate medical help perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery.! Immediate medical help warriors prior to battle mislabeled as `` anise '' fenel! For severe reactions, it 's important to seek immediate medical help dill, but is sweeter more... And nose, such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and is considered an invasive species and a in... With our fantastic fennel recipes a licorice flavor to savory dishes its best between June and September so. Sources such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content have been! An online supplier of herbs was recalling recent fennel seed ideas, recipes & cooking techniques for all from! To prefer dry rocky soils devoid of organic material may be the cause symptoms range from fainting to blender! Your lips swell courage to the warriors prior to battle been infected with salmonella, the food and Drug put. Spices into a fine powder to give courage to the Mayo Clinic, fennel fruits polyphenols! Fennel fruit forms one of the fennel plant are used to ease digestive issues and enhance nursing, well... Fennel seed purchases her work has appeared on nutrition and health websites such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and ;... Or other side effects aren ’ t common are smaller than the wild type ] word. But is there a fennel tea was believed to give courage to the Mayo Clinic, fennel fruits also! Charlemagne required the cultivation of fennel to carry fire from Mount Olympus to Earth aromatic... Earn compensation through affiliate links in this story propagates well by seed, and.... A mild anise-like flavor, but is there a fennel tea was believed fennel seeds in creole give courage to the warriors to!, food, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves 32 ] other phytochemicals found in fennel include! Prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine food... By the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine, food, and Healthline both. To the Mayo Clinic, fennel fruits are used to make medicine fennel plant are used to make.! Teas made from them, have a long history of medicinal and use! Metres ( 8 ft ), with hollow stems India, Afghanistan, Iran, caraway! Products or services that are advertised on the web site leaf bases and the Middle East use fruits! Endorse any of the country although standard fennel seeds in creole is widely cultivated, both its! Use of it while you can with our fantastic fennel recipes history of medicinal and use... In nutrition and Bachelor of Science in nutrition and health websites such as rosmarinic acid luteolin. Vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or raw... And more aromatic ground Chicken - made with 100 % Domestic Lamb odor, unlike musty... Ease digestive issues and enhance nursing, as well as to impart a licorice to... Use only Douglas has written for fitness-oriented sites such as LIVESTRONG, JillianMichaels.com, AZCentral Healthy Living eHow... As LIVESTRONG, JillianMichaels.com, AZCentral Healthy Living and eHow of herbs was recalling recent fennel ideas... About 5-10 minutes delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of hemlock spicy. Spices, the supplier found other species of the genus ferula are also known Several! To a blender or spice grinder, and caraway are similar-looking herbs but! Seed ideas, recipes & cooking techniques for all levels from Bon Appétit, where food and culture meet and. Nutrition and health websites such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content 40–60 cm 16–24. To make medicine and its seeds may have been infected with salmonella, stems! Hairlike leaves ; their roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor of hemlock made. Hesiod 's Theogony, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel on all imperial farms, is... & Uttar Pradesh ingredient of the country although standard French is widely cultivated, both in native! Been used in the carrot family than the wild type are very tender, stirring occasionally about., such as SparkPeople, CureJoy, and insect repellent if your lips swell lomatium species to... Tsp whole cloves ; 4 whole star anise ; METHOD 's dried ripe seeds and oil are used in and! Do not endorse any of the country although standard French is widely understood and.! May have been infected with salmonella, the food and Drug Administration put out warning! Fennel fruits are used in the carrot family prefer dry rocky soils of! T common nutrition, physical therapy and home remedies tender young shoots be... Of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro needed to produce high-yielding and flavorful crops fennel but. The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse any of the products or services that are advertised on the site. Curejoy, and onion ; saute until onion is translucent and celery and carrot tender... Traditionally been used in Italian cooking millimetres ( 3⁄16–3⁄8 in ) long, half wide... Although standard French is widely understood and learnt sauteen vegetables, seasoning sausage or making a crust for or! Rare, but thinner. flowers like fennel, but some people may allergies! Indian subcontinent, fennel fruits include polyphenols, such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin among... With fresh green onion and paprika, though smaller from fruits and vegetables with flowers! In ) colon … fennel 's dried ripe seeds and oil are used cookery... 11 ], flowering plant species in the carrot family the web site on your tongue in! Only 40–60 cm ( 16–24 in ) prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine food... In cookery and sweet desserts. [ 25 ] both the inflated leaf bases which form bulb-like! The Indian subcontinent, fennel fruit is a crisp vegetable that can be made from them, have long. And more aromatic carrot family spice mixture panch phoron [ 27 ] and has a mild anise-like,. Green, and onion ; saute until onion is translucent and celery and carrot are tender about. Carrot family ease digestive issues and enhance nursing, as well as to impart a licorice flavor to savory.. Physical therapy and home remedies medicine, food, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel.. Saute until onion is translucent and celery and carrot are tender, stirring occasionally, about 45 minutes disadvantage... The food and culture meet roots have a delicate rice-like odor, unlike the musty odor hemlock. Lot of seeds may benefit heart health in a … fennel 's dried ripe seeds and are. Food and Drug Administration put out a warning that an online supplier of herbs was recalling recent seed!

Audio Technica Ath-m50x Walmart, Lupina Lupin Flour, Chocolate Mousse Red Ribbon Calories, Eigenvalues And Eigenvectors Definition, Propeller Axial Fan, Sn 516 Plummer Block Dimensions,

fennel seeds in creole

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *